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Clock on platform at London Kings Cross station

Public Performance Measure

The number of trains that arrive on time has risen dramatically since we took over the running of Britain's railway in October 2002

The public performance measure (PPM) shows the percentage of trains which arrive at their terminating station on time.

It combines figures for punctuality and reliability into a single performance measure. It is the industry standard measurement of performance.

Performance for 30 April – 27 May (Period 2)

The national PPM is 91.2%.

This compares to 89.8% for the same period last year.

The moving annual average (MAA) is 87.8%.

Performance 2002-2017

public performance trend graph

Performance by train operator

The table below shows the average PPM for Britain as a whole and by train operating company. The moving annual average is calculated over the 365 days to 27 May.

Performance by train operator

Train Operating CompanyPPM % period 2, 2016/17 PPM % period 2, 2017/18PPM Moving annual average (MAA)
Abellio Greater Anglia92.490.888.9
Arriva Trains Wales93.893.791.9
c2c Rail96.096.894.4
Caledonian Sleeper95.790.887.8
East Midlands Trains93.294.092.1
First Hull Trains86.882.280.9
Transpennine Express92.388.188.6
Govia Thameslink Railway78.185.574.9
Grand Central91.889.784.6
Great Western Railway90.190.388.3
Heathrow Express86.992.390.0
London Midland91.591.089.0
London Overground95.296.794.7
Stagecoach South West Trains88.491.287.2
TfL Rail96.992.394.5
Virgin Trains East Coast89.489.483.1
Virgin Trains West Coast91.489.789.3
Total National Performance89.891.287.8


  • The measure of train punctuality also known as PPM (public performance measure) means trains arriving at their terminating station within five minutes for commuter services and within 10 minutes for long distance services.
  • This measure of punctuality is commonly used throughout Europe.
  • National train punctuality is measured for all trains across the whole network, including cancelled services and delays caused by external factors (such as vandalism, extreme weather, suicides etc).
  • Punctuality was not recorded in this thorough way until 1997. Before then Railtrack, and British Rail before that, did not measure all services and also excluded external factors and other items from their numbers.
  • These figures represent provisional data for the period and individual operators' performance data may vary slightly from the full period performance report that we publishes on our website every month.
  • National PPM % is calculated by regarding every train as equal. Operators who run more trains will influence National PPM % more than Operators who run fewer trains.
  • Network Rail and the train operators run more trains across Great Britain than are run in most European countries - almost 20% more than in France and 60% more than in Italy.
  • Britain's 24,000 trains per-day is also more than Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Portugal and Norway combined.

Franchise changes

  • Virgin Trains East Coast took over from East Coast on 1 March 2015.
  • For clarity we began to report Virgin Trains as Virgin Trains West Coast from 1 March 2015.
  • Caledonian Sleeper took over sleeper services from First ScotRail on 31 March 2015.
  • ScotRail took over from First ScotRail on 1 April 2015.
  • TfL Rail took over the London Liverpool Street to Shenfield metro services from Abellio Greater Anglia on 31 May 2015
  • London Overground took over the London Liverpool Street to Enfield Town/Cheshunt/Chingford services as well as the Romford to Upminster service from Abellio Greater Anglia on 31 May 2015
  • Govia Thameslink Railway took over the Southern franchise on 26 July 2015
  • First Great Western was rebranded Great Western Railway on 20 September 2015.

A breakdown of each operator's performance, known as sub-operator PPM, is available to download:

Sub-operator PPM figures for period 2 2017/18

Cancellation and significant lateness (CaSL)

A train is counted as being a CaSL failure if:

  • It is cancelled at origin.
  • It is cancelled en route.
  • The originating station is changed.
  • It fails to make a scheduled stop at a station.
  • It is significantly late (ie it arrives at its terminating station 30 minutes or more late).

CaSL is not a regulated measure for Scottish train operators.

The moving annual average is calculated over 365 days to 27 May.

Cancellation and significant lateness (CaSL)

Train Operating CompanyCaSL % period 2, 2016/17CaSL % period 2, 2017/18CaSL Moving annual average (MAA)
Abellio Greater Anglia2.32.93.1
Arriva Trains Wales2.12.33.0
c2c Rail1.41.32.3
East Midlands Trains2.11.82.4
First Hull Trains3.94.27.9
Transpennine Express3.54.94.9
Govia Thameslink Railway7.44.39.0
Grand Central2.41.65.9
Great Western Railway2.72.02.9
Heathrow Express2.11.01.7
London Midland2.22.72.9
London Overground2.11.32.3
Stagecoach South West Trains
TfL Rail2.14.32.8
Virgin Trains East Coast3.73.37.0
Virgin Trains West Coast2.42.93.9
Total England & Wales Performance3.32.63.9

Average lateness

This measures the average lateness of a passenger as they alight from their train.

For each train, this is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers expected to alight at main stations by the punctuality to the nearest minute at those stops.

If the train is cancelled, we calculate it by multiplying the number of expected passengers by 1.5 times the service frequency on that route.

Average lateness

Average lateness in minutes period 2, 2017/18Average lateness in minutes, moving annual average
Long Distance3.84.7
London & South East1.82.8
England & Wales2.02.9

Right-time performance

Right-time is an unreliable measure of performance and particularly does not represent the results and experience of passengers serviced by long-distance operators who enjoy some of the very best passenger satisfaction levels in the industry.

Right-time performance measures the percentage of trains arriving at their terminating station early or within 59 seconds of schedule. The process for gathering data of this accuracy is currently not 100% reliable and the industry is working on improving the quality of this information to make right-time data more reliable.

The moving annual average is calculated over 365 days to 27 May.

Right-time performance

Train Operating CompanyRight time % period 2, 2016/17Right time % period 2, 2017/18Right time moving annual average (MAA)
Abellio Greater Anglia71.570.864.8
Arriva Trains Wales82.185.481.5
c2c Rail74.675.972.8
Caledonian Sleeper85.481.678.5
East Midlands Trains73.876.170.2
First Hull Trains45.932.035.0
Transpennine Express58.154.252.5
Govia Thameslink Railway48.957.547.3
Grand Central51.853.143.3
Great Western Railway69.769.366.3
Heathrow Express51.666.164.8
London Midland70.170.065.6
London Overground77.478.176.1
Stagecoach South West Trains64.469.361.9
TfL Rail87.479.283.1
Virgin Trains East Coast62.258.550.2
Virgin Trains West Coast64.962.760.8
Total National Performance66.168.163.1

Delay split

The delay split shows who was responsible for passenger train delays of 3 minutes or more.

  • Network Rail caused delays: as well as infrastructure faults this figure includes external factors such as weather, trespass, vandalism, cable theft and fatalities which account for approximately one third of the delays attributed to us and 20% of all national delays.
  • Train operator caused to self: delays to a passenger train operating company's services that are caused by that company.
  • Caused by other train operators: delays to a passenger train operators services that are caused by another train company.

The delay split was calculated over 365 days to 27 May.

Delay spilt

Network RailTrain operator caused to selfCaused by other train operators

Delay Split by Operator: Period 2 (30 April 2017 to 27 May 2017)

OperatorInfrastructure*Operations & Other*External (inc. weather, fatalities etc.)*Total*Train operator caused to selfCaused by other passenger train operatorsCaused by freight train operators
Abellio Greater Anglia31%15%18%64%26%4%6%
Arriva Trains Wales25%14%17%56%36%6%3%
c2c Rail18%15%18%51%45%1%3%
East Midlands Trains25%13%24%63%19%13%5%
First Hull Trains48%12%9%69%16%12%2%
Transpennine Express29%14%17%60%14%23% 3%
Govia Thameslink Railway16%32%10%57%39%3%1%
Grand Central33%15%9%58%14%25%3%
Great Western Railway20%22%12%55%30%5%10%
Heathrow Express14%36%9%60%14%18%7%
London Midland32% 13% 13%58%26% 12%4%
London Overground23%27%13%64%17% 15%4%
Stagecoach South West Trains35%23%13%70%22%3%5%
TfL Rail22%21%12%56%25%7%13%
Virgin Trains East Coast36%12%11%59%26%11%3%
Virgin Trains West Coast40%12%21%73%14%11%2%

*Attributed to Network Rail

Delay Split by Operator: MAA (365 days to 27 May 2017)

OperatorInfrastructure*Operations & Other*External (inc. weather, fatalities etc.)*NR Total*Train operator caused to selfCaused by other passenger train operatorsCaused by freight train operators
Abellio Greater Anglia31%13%19%62%28%4%5%
Arriva Trains Wales17% 19% 16%52%40%5%3%
c2c Rail17%15%31%63%35%1%1%
East Midlands Trains27%16%20%63%20%12%5%
First Hull Trains33%12%23%68%12%19%1%
Transpennine Express25%16%18%59%16%21%5%
Govia Thameslink Railway15%31%12%58%39%2%1%
Grand Central33%13%19%65%12%21%2%
Great Western Railway26%22%15%63%25%5%6%
Heathrow Express33%27%9%70%9%16%5%
London Midland22%15%17%55%30%11%5%
London Overground21%28%13%61%17%17%5%
Stagecoach South West Trains29%21%21%71%25%3%2%
TfL Rail20%22%18%61% 25%10%5%
Virgin Trains East Coast31%12%23%66%22%9%3%
Virgin Trains West Coast32%16%23%70%14%11%5%

*Attributed to Network Rail

How punctuality is measured

PPM measures the performance of individual trains advertised as passenger services against their planned timetable as agreed between the operator and Network Rail at 22:00 the night before. PPM is therefore the percentage of trains 'on time' compared to the total number of trains planned.

A train is defined as on time if it arrives at the destination within five minutes (ie 4 minutes 59 seconds or less) of the planned arrival time for London and South East or regional services, or 10 minutes (ie 9 minutes 59 seconds or less) for long distance services.

Where a train fails to run its entire planned route calling at all timetabled stations it will count as a PPM failure.

Note: unless specified otherwise, all data on and linked from this page is for initial indications only and is subject to change in subsequent publications.