Clock on platform at London Kings Cross station

Public Performance Measure

The number of trains that arrive on time has risen dramatically since we took over the running of Britain's railway in October 2002

This page contains information on the current regulated performance measures for Control Period 5 (CP5). In July 2017 a new suite of metrics to measure train performance was announced for the next control period (CP6); which begins in April 2019.

The public performance measure (PPM) shows the percentage of trains which arrive at their terminating station within 5 minutes (for London & South East and regional services) or 10 minutes (for long distance services).

It combines figures for punctuality and reliability into a single performance measure. It is the current industry standard measurement of performance.

Performance for 19 August - 15 September (Period 6)

The national PPM is 89.1%.

This compares to 89.4% for the same period last year.

The moving annual average (MAA) is 86.0%.

Performance 2002-2018

Performance by train operator

The table below shows the average PPM for Britain as a whole and by train operating company. The moving annual average is calculated over the 365 days to 15 September.

Train Operating CompanyPPM %
Period 6, 2017/18
Period 6, 2018/19
PPM Moving annual
average (MAA)
Overall % Satisfaction with the Journey*
Total National Performance89.489.186.0-
Greater Anglia91.389.387.776
Arriva Trains Wales92.392.991.382
c2c Rail96.194.694.586
Caledonian Sleeper88.693.486.6-
East Midlands Trains94.990.690.187
First Hull Trains74.080.972.387
Transpennine Express89.979.278.786
Govia Thameslink Railway81.987.380.2**
Grand Central86.484.578.695
Great Western Railway87.085.083.281
Heathrow Express94.195.390.395
West Midlands Trains91.188.785.681
London Overground95.895.193.788
South Western Railway79.784.383.680
TfL Rail89.596.490.869
London North Eastern Railway86.080.875.287
Virgin Trains West Coast87.988.081.689

* Figures produced by Transport Focus as of Spring 2018 (Published June 2018).

**Figures are provided by the component parts (Great Northern, Southern, Gatwick Express and Thameslink).


  • The measure of train punctuality also known as PPM (public performance measure) means trains arriving at their terminating station within five minutes for commuter services and within 10 minutes for long distance services.
  • This measure of punctuality is commonly used throughout Europe.
  • National train punctuality is measured for all trains across the whole network, including cancelled services and delays caused by external factors (such as vandalism, extreme weather, suicides etc).
  • Punctuality was not recorded in this thorough way until 1997. Before then Railtrack, and British Rail before that, did not measure all services and also excluded external factors and other items from their numbers.
  • These figures represent provisional data for the period and individual operators' performance data may vary slightly from the full period performance report that we publishes on our website every month.
  • National PPM % is calculated by regarding every train as equal. Operators who run more trains will influence National PPM % more than Operators who run fewer trains.
  • Network Rail and the train operators run more trains across Great Britain than are run in most European countries - almost 20% more than in France and 60% more than in Italy.
  • Britain's 24,000 trains per-day is also more than Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Portugal and Norway combined.

Franchise changes

  • Virgin Trains East Coast took over from East Coast on 1 March 2015.
  • For clarity we began to report Virgin Trains as Virgin Trains West Coast from 1 March 2015.
  • Caledonian Sleeper took over sleeper services from First ScotRail on 31 March 2015.
  • ScotRail took over from First ScotRail on 1 April 2015.
  • TfL Rail took over the London Liverpool Street to Shenfield metro services from Abellio Greater Anglia on 31 May 2015.
  • London Overground took over the London Liverpool Street to Enfield Town/Cheshunt/Chingford services as well as the Romford to Upminster service from Abellio Greater Anglia on 31 May 2015.
  • Govia Thameslink Railway took over the Southern franchise on 26 July 2015.
  • First Great Western was rebranded Great Western Railway on 20 September 2015.
  • South Western Railway took over from Stagecoach South Western Trains on 20 August 2017.
  • West Midlands Trains took over from London Midland on 10 December 2017.
  • London North Eastern Railway took over from Virgin Trains East Coast on 24 June 2018

A breakdown of each operator's performance, known as sub-operator PPM, is available to download:

Sub operator PPM figures for Period 06 2018-19

Cancellation and significant lateness (CaSL)

A train is counted as being a CaSL failure if:

  • It is cancelled at origin.
  • It is cancelled en route.
  • The originating station is changed.
  • It fails to make a scheduled stop at a station.
  • It is significantly late (ie it arrives at its terminating station 30 minutes or more late).

CaSL is not a regulated measure for Scottish train operators.

The moving annual average is calculated over 365 days to 15 September.

Train Operating CompanyCaSL %
Period 6, 2017/18
CaSL %
Period 6, 2018/19
CaSL Moving annual
average (MAA)
Total England & Wales Performance3.73.44.6
Greater Anglia2.92.73.6
Arriva Trains Wales2.62.33.4
c2c Rail1.71.62.9
East Midlands Trains0.93.42.8
First Hull Trains4.14.110.5
Transpennine Express5.010.49.9
Govia Thameslink Railway6.95.17.3
Grand Central4.14.28.5
Great Western Railway3.53.55.2
Heathrow Express0.80.62.1
West Midlands Trains2.53.04.1
London Overground2.32.93.7
South Western Railway6.23.24.2
TfL Rail4.31.24.3
London North Eastern Railway4.43.88.8
Virgin Trains West Coast4.73.06.7

Average lateness

This measures the average lateness of a passenger as they alight from their train.

For each train, this is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers expected to alight at main stations by the punctuality to the nearest minute at those stops.

If the train is cancelled, we calculate it by multiplying the number of expected passengers by 1.5 times the service frequency on that route.

GeographyAverage Lateness in Minutes
Period 6, 2018/19
Average Lateness in Minutes,
Moving annual
average (MAA)
Long Distance5.46.8
London & South East2.12.8
England & Wales2.53.3

Right-time performance

Right-time performance measures the percentage of trains arriving at their terminating station early or within 59 seconds of schedule. The process for gathering data of this accuracy is currently not 100% reliable and the industry is working on improving the quality of this information to make right-time data more reliable.

An important distinction should be made between ‘right-time’ which refers only to punctuality at terminus and ‘on time’ – a new measure for CP6 which measures punctual arrival at all recorded stations – not just at terminus.

The moving annual average is calculated over 365 days to 15 September.

Train Operating CompanyRight Time %
Period 6, 2017/18
Right Time %
Period 6, 2018/19
Right Time Moving annual
average (MAA)
Total National Performance65.664.560.7
Greater Anglia70.565.963.5
Arriva Trains Wales82.684.081.8
c2c Rail74.271.575.4
Caledonian Sleeper84.487.476.1
East Midlands Trains76.167.866.1
First Hull Trains20.037.723.8
Transpennine Express55.839.739.5
Govia Thameslink Railway54.763.454.0
Grand Central45.042.736.3
Great Western Railway64.760.560.1
Heathrow Express71.675.463.9
West Midlands Trains68.964.461.4
London Overground81.179.578.3
South Western Railway55.955.755.6
TfL Rail68.486.073.9
London North Eastern Railway50.235.433.1
Virgin Trains West Coast48.243.539.4

Delay split

The delay split shows to whom delays are attributed for passenger train delays of 3 minutes or more.

  • Network Rail attributed delays: as well as infrastructure faults this figure includes external factors such as weather, trespass, vandalism, cable theft and fatalities which account for approximately one third of the delays attributed to us and 20% of all national delays.
  • Train operator caused to self: delays to a passenger train operating company's services that are attributed to that company.
  • Caused by other train operators: delays to a passenger train operators services that are attributed to another train company.

The delay split was calculated over 365 days to 15 September.

Network RailTrain operator caused to selfCaused by other train operators

Delay Split by Operator: Period 5 (19 August 2018 to 15 September 2018)

OperatorInfrastructure*Operations & Other*External (inc. weather, fatalities etc.)*NR Total*Train operator caused to selfCaused by other passenger train operatorsCaused by freight train operators
Greater Anglia27%15%20%62%27%4%7%
Arriva Trains Wales20%17%10%46%44%8%2%
c2c Rail14%8%39%61%37%1%1%
East Midlands Trains21%18%24%62%22%11%5%
First Hull Trains38%14%9%61%17%20%1%
Transpennine Express23%19%12%54%22%22%2%
Govia Thameslink Railway17%22%13%52%42%4%1%
Grand Central26%14%10%50%15%35%1%
Great Western Railway27%21%10%58%35%4%3%
Heathrow Express17%30%6%53%13%32%3%
West Midlands Trains31%14%17%62%22%12%4%
London Overground28%16%9%54%28%13%5%
South Western Railway38%21%14%74%23%3%1%
TfL Rail18%24%16%57%19%18%6%
London North Eastern Railway25%19%10%54%25%19%2%
Virgin Trains West Coast38%13%19%69%16%11%4%

*Attributed to Network Rail

Delay Split by Operator: MAA (365 days to 15 September 2018)

OperatorInfrastructure*Operations & Other*External (inc. weather, fatalities etc.)*NR Total*Train operator caused to selfCaused by other passenger train operatorsCaused by freight train operators
Greater Anglia29%14%19%62%27%5%5%
Arriva Trains Wales16%16%17%49%40%8%3%
c2c Rail19%15%21%55%42%1%1%
East Midlands Trains25%17%19%60%20%14%6%
First Hull Trains28%10%19%57%20%20%2%
Transpennine Express23%18%16%57%15%24%3%
Govia Thameslink Railway18%26%13%58%37%3%1%
Grand Central24%10%19%53%16%27%3%
Great Western Railway23%19%14%57%33%5%5%
Heathrow Express35%22%8%65%9%22%4%
West Midlands Trains24%15%20%58%26%12%4%
London Overground21%23%13%57%23%15%4%
South Western Railway29%19%18%66%30%3%1%
TfL Rail20%20%13%53%29%14%4%
London North Eastern Railway27%11%20%58%26%13%3%
Virgin Trains West Coast30%13%26%69%16%12%4%

*Attributed to Network Rail

How punctuality is measured

PPM measures the performance of individual trains advertised as passenger services against their planned timetable as agreed between the operator and Network Rail at 22:00 the night before. PPM is therefore the percentage of trains 'on time' compared to the total number of trains planned.

A train is defined as on time if it arrives at the destination within five minutes (ie 4 minutes 59 seconds or less) of the planned arrival time for London and South East or regional services, or 10 minutes (ie 9 minutes 59 seconds or less) for long distance services.

Where a train fails to run its entire planned route calling at all timetabled stations it will count as a PPM failure.

Note: unless specified otherwise, all data on and linked from this page is for initial indications only and is subject to change in subsequent publications.