Clock on platform at London Kings Cross station

Public Performance Measure

The number of trains that arrive on time has risen dramatically since we took over the running of Britain's railway in October 2002

This page contains information on the current regulated performance measures for Control Period 5 (CP5). In July 2017 a new suite of metrics to measure train performance was announced for the next control period (CP6); which begins in April 2019.

The public performance measure (PPM) shows the percentage of trains which arrive at their terminating station within 5 minutes (for London & South East and regional services) or 10 minutes (for long distance services).

It combines figures for punctuality and reliability into a single performance measure. It is the current industry standard measurement of performance.

Performance for 24 June - 21 July (Period 4)

The national PPM is 82.2%.

This compares to 89.8% for the same period last year.

The moving annual average (MAA) is 86.4%.

Performance 2002-2018

Performance by train operator

The table below shows the average PPM for Britain as a whole and by train operating company. The moving annual average is calculated over the 365 days to 21 July.

Train Operating CompanyPPM %
Period 4, 2017/18
Period 4, 2018/19
PPM Moving annual
average (MAA)
Overall % Satisfaction with the Journey*
Total National Performance89.882.286.4-
Greater Anglia89.087.888.576
Arriva Trains Wales93.388.091.682
c2c Rail94.290.194.786
Caledonian Sleeper91.188.886.8-
East Midlands Trains93.787.391.087
First Hull Trains85.674.072.987
Transpennine Express91.964.281.086
Govia Thameslink Railway85.073.379.9**
Grand Central88.364.979.595
Great Western Railway83.278.583.981
Heathrow Express89.092.290.495
West Midlands Trains90.483.086.381
London Overground94.991.694.088
South Western Railway87.778.783.480
TfL Rail92.691.890.069
London North Eastern Railway88.068.177.387
Virgin Trains West Coast85.070.382.389

* Figures produced by Transport Focus as of Spring 2018 (Published June 2018).

**Figures are provided by the component parts (Great Northern, Southern, Gatwick Express and Thameslink).


  • The measure of train punctuality also known as PPM (public performance measure) means trains arriving at their terminating station within five minutes for commuter services and within 10 minutes for long distance services.
  • This measure of punctuality is commonly used throughout Europe.
  • National train punctuality is measured for all trains across the whole network, including cancelled services and delays caused by external factors (such as vandalism, extreme weather, suicides etc).
  • Punctuality was not recorded in this thorough way until 1997. Before then Railtrack, and British Rail before that, did not measure all services and also excluded external factors and other items from their numbers.
  • These figures represent provisional data for the period and individual operators' performance data may vary slightly from the full period performance report that we publishes on our website every month.
  • National PPM % is calculated by regarding every train as equal. Operators who run more trains will influence National PPM % more than Operators who run fewer trains.
  • Network Rail and the train operators run more trains across Great Britain than are run in most European countries - almost 20% more than in France and 60% more than in Italy.
  • Britain's 24,000 trains per-day is also more than Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Portugal and Norway combined.

Franchise changes

  • Virgin Trains East Coast took over from East Coast on 1 March 2015.
  • For clarity we began to report Virgin Trains as Virgin Trains West Coast from 1 March 2015.
  • Caledonian Sleeper took over sleeper services from First ScotRail on 31 March 2015.
  • ScotRail took over from First ScotRail on 1 April 2015.
  • TfL Rail took over the London Liverpool Street to Shenfield metro services from Abellio Greater Anglia on 31 May 2015.
  • London Overground took over the London Liverpool Street to Enfield Town/Cheshunt/Chingford services as well as the Romford to Upminster service from Abellio Greater Anglia on 31 May 2015.
  • Govia Thameslink Railway took over the Southern franchise on 26 July 2015.
  • First Great Western was rebranded Great Western Railway on 20 September 2015.
  • South Western Railway took over from Stagecoach South Western Trains on 20 August 2017.
  • West Midlands Trains took over from London Midland on 10 December 2017.
  • London North Eastern Railway took over from Virgin Trains East Coast on 24 June 2018

A breakdown of each operator's performance, known as sub-operator PPM, is available to download:

Sub operator PPM figures for Period 04 2018-19

Cancellation and significant lateness (CaSL)

A train is counted as being a CaSL failure if:

  • It is cancelled at origin.
  • It is cancelled en route.
  • The originating station is changed.
  • It fails to make a scheduled stop at a station.
  • It is significantly late (ie it arrives at its terminating station 30 minutes or more late).

CaSL is not a regulated measure for Scottish train operators.

The moving annual average is calculated over 365 days to 21 July

Train Operating CompanyCaSL %
Period 4, 2017/18
CaSL %
Period 4, 2018/19
CaSL Moving annual
average (MAA)
Total England & Wales Performance3.36.54.5
Greater Anglia2.73.53.4
Arriva Trains Wales1.94.13.3
c2c Rail2.85.42.8
East Midlands Trains1.53.52.5
First Hull Trains2.86.29.9
Transpennine Express3.418.58.8
Govia Thameslink Railway5.012.97.4
Grand Central5.516.98.3
Great Western Railway5.36.45.1
Heathrow Express4.21.22.1
West Midlands Trains2.74.33.9
London Overground2.25.03.4
South Western Railway3.36.04.5
TfL Rail2.94.24.7
London North Eastern Railway3.98.98.1
Virgin Trains West Coast7.410.56.7

Average lateness

This measures the average lateness of a passenger as they alight from their train.

For each train, this is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers expected to alight at main stations by the punctuality to the nearest minute at those stops.

If the train is cancelled, we calculate it by multiplying the number of expected passengers by 1.5 times the service frequency on that route.

GeographyAverage Lateness in Minutes
Period 4, 2018/19
Average Lateness in Minutes,
Moving annual
average (MAA)
Long Distance9.66.4
London & South East3.62.8
England & Wales4.43.2

Right-time performance

Right-time performance measures the percentage of trains arriving at their terminating station early or within 59 seconds of schedule. The process for gathering data of this accuracy is currently not 100% reliable and the industry is working on improving the quality of this information to make right-time data more reliable.

An important distinction should be made between ‘right-time’ which refers only to punctuality at terminus and ‘on time’ – a new measure for CP6 which measures punctual arrival at all recorded stations – not just at terminus.

The moving annual average is calculated over 365 days to 21 July.

Train Operating CompanyRight Time %
Period 4, 2017/18
Right Time %
Period 4, 2018/19
Right Time Moving annual
average (MAA)
Total National Performance65.357.561.3
Greater Anglia63.863.464.6
Arriva Trains Wales83.776.082.1
c2c Rail76.671.575.8
Caledonian Sleeper83.383.576.8
East Midlands Trains72.762.867.7
First Hull Trains24.229.122.6
Transpennine Express57.726.942.4
Govia Thameslink Railway57.550.453.1
Grand Central45.729.737.0
Great Western Railway60.554.661.2
Heathrow Express61.467.863.8
West Midlands Trains68.158.562.4
London Overground76.273.578.7
South Western Railway62.151.556.2
TfL Rail72.480.471.5
London North Eastern Railway50.824.736.2
Virgin Trains West Coast48.925.440.9

Delay split

The delay split shows to whom delays are attributed for passenger train delays of 3 minutes or more.

  • Network Rail attributed delays: as well as infrastructure faults this figure includes external factors such as weather, trespass, vandalism, cable theft and fatalities which account for approximately one third of the delays attributed to us and 20% of all national delays.
  • Train operator caused to self: delays to a passenger train operating company's services that are attributed to that company.
  • Caused by other train operators: delays to a passenger train operators services that are attributed to another train company.

The delay split was calculated over 365 days to 21 July.

Network RailTrain operator caused to selfCaused by other train operators

Delay Split by Operator: Period 4 (24 June 2018 to 21 July 2018)

OperatorInfrastructure*Operations & Other*External (inc. weather, fatalities etc.)*NR Total*Train operator caused to selfCaused by other passenger train operatorsCaused by freight train operators
Greater Anglia34%12%16%62%27%7%3%
Arriva Trains Wales16%13%17%46%43%7%3%
c2c Rail18%14%17%49%49%1%1%
East Midlands Trains24%14%21%59%20%17%4%
First Hull Trains41%7%11%59%11%27%2%
Transpennine Express25%15%19%58%19%20%3%
Govia Thameslink Railway23%15%11%49%48%3%1%
Grand Central19%6%17%43%27%26%4%
Great Western Railway23%19%14%55%36%5%4%
Heathrow Express33%23%9%64%9%21%6%
West Midlands Trains29%12%25%66%19%11%5%
London Overground27%13%11%51%33%12%4%
South Western Railway26%11%32%69%26%3%1%
TfL Rail30%14%14%58%25%11%6%
London North Eastern Railway28%8%18%54%27%16%2%
Virgin Trains West Coast31%11%32%74%15%7%5%

*Attributed to Network Rail

Delay Split by Operator: MAA (365 days to 21 July 2018)

OperatorInfrastructure*Operations & Other*External (inc. weather, fatalities etc.)*NR Total*Train operator caused to selfCaused by other passenger train operatorsCaused by freight train operators
Virgin Trains West Coast29%13%27%69%15%12%4%
Greater Anglia29%15%18%61%28%6%6%
Arriva Trains Wales15%17%18%50%39%7%3%
c2c Rail17%16%20%53%43%1%2%
East Midlands Trains25%17%18%60%20%14%6%
First Hull Trains28%9%20%56%22%20%2%
Transpennine Express23%17%17%57%15%24%4%
Govia Thameslink Railway18%27%13%58%38%3%1%
Grand Central26%10%19%55%16%27%3%
Great Western Railway23%19%14%57%34%5%5%
Heathrow Express35%23%8%66%8%22%4%
West Midlands Trains23%15%20%57%27%11%4%
London Overground21%25%12%58%22%16%4%
South Western Railway28%22%17%68%28%3%1%
TfL Rail21%21%12%53%28%14%5%
London North Eastern Railway28%11%19%58%26%13%2%

*Attributed to Network Rail

How punctuality is measured

PPM measures the performance of individual trains advertised as passenger services against their planned timetable as agreed between the operator and Network Rail at 22:00 the night before. PPM is therefore the percentage of trains 'on time' compared to the total number of trains planned.

A train is defined as on time if it arrives at the destination within five minutes (ie 4 minutes 59 seconds or less) of the planned arrival time for London and South East or regional services, or 10 minutes (ie 9 minutes 59 seconds or less) for long distance services.

Where a train fails to run its entire planned route calling at all timetabled stations it will count as a PPM failure.

Note: unless specified otherwise, all data on and linked from this page is for initial indications only and is subject to change in subsequent publications.