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  • Performance

    The number of trains that arrive on time has risen dramatically since we took over the running of Britain's railway in October 2002

  • Public performance measure

    The public performance measure (PPM) shows the percentage of trains which arrive at their terminating station on time.

    It combines figures for punctuality and reliability into a single performance measure. It is the industry standard measurement of performance.

    Performance for 6 March to 31 March (period 13)

    The national PPM is 90.5%.

    This compares to 91.2% for the same period last year.

    The moving annual average (MAA) is 89.1%.

    Performance 2002-2016

    PPM trend graph

    Performance by train operator

    The table below shows the average PPM for Britain as a whole and by train operating company. The moving annual average is calculated over the 365 days to 31 March.

    Train Operating Company
    PPM % period 13, 2014/15
    PPM % period 13, 2015/16
    PPM Moving annual average (MAA)
    Abellio Greater Anglia 92.1 91.4 89.3
    Arriva Trains Wales 95.2 92.6 92.2
    c2c Rail 98.0 93.8 96.7
    Caledonian Sleeper 91.8 90.9 86.0
    Chiltern 95.6 96.0 94.4
    Crosscountry 88.4 91.4 89.5
    East Midlands Trains 94.5 91.7 92.8
    First Hull Trains 86.0 88.0 85.3
    First Transpennine Express 92.9 90.0 87.8
    Govia Thameslink Railway 82.7 82.5 81.5
    Grand Central 91.6 84.2 86.6
    Great Western Railway 92.5 91.5 89.5
    Heathrow Express 92.8 94.4 91.8
    London Midland 88.5 90.4 88.1
    London Overground 94.3 95.1 94.4
    Merseyrail 96.9 97.0 95.3
    Northern Rail 93.8 93.1 90.7
    ScotRail 91.7 92.6 90.6
    Southeastern 93.1 89.1 86.9
    Stagecoach South West Trains 92.6 90.2 90.1
    TfL Rail 95.7 93.5 94.0
    Virgin Trains East Coast 90.0 87.0 85.2
    Virgin Trains West Coast 86.1 83.3 86.0
           
    Total England & Wales Performance 91.2  90.5   89.1  

    Delay split by franchised operator

    Notes:

    • The measure of train punctuality also known as PPM (public performance measure) means trains arriving at their terminating station within five minutes for commuter services and within 10 minutes for long distance services.
    • This measure of punctuality is commonly used throughout Europe.
    • National train punctuality is measured for all trains across the whole network, including cancelled services and delays caused by external factors (such as vandalism, extreme weather, suicides etc).
    • Punctuality was not recorded in this thorough way until 1997. Before then Railtrack, and British Rail before that, did not measure all services and also excluded external factors and other items from their numbers.
    • These figures represent provisional data for the period and individual operators' performance data may vary slightly from the full period performance report that we publishes on our website every month.
    • Network Rail and the train operators run more trains across Great Britain than are run in most European countries - almost 20% more than in France and 60% more than in Italy.
    • Britain's 24,000 trains per-day is also more than Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Portugal and Norway combined.

    Franchise changes

    • Virgin Trains East Coast took over from East Coast on 1 March 2015.
    • For clarity we began to report Virgin Trains as Virgin Trains West Coast from 1 March 2015.
    • Caledonian Sleeper took over sleeper services from First ScotRail on 31 March 2015.
    • ScotRail took over from First ScotRail on 1 April 2015.
    • TfL Rail took over the London Liverpool Street to Shenfield metro services from Abellio Greater Anglia on 31 May 2015
    • London Overground took over the London Liverpool Street to Enfield Town/Cheshunt/Chingford services as well as the Romford to Upminster service from Abellio Greater Anglia on 31 May 2015
    • Govia Thameslink Railway took over the Southern franchise on 26 July 2015
    • First Great Western was rebranded Great Western Railway on 20 September 2015.

    A breakdown of each operator's performance, known as sub-operator PPM, is available to download:

    Sub-operator PPM, period 11 2015/16

    Cancellation and significant lateness (CaSL)

    A train is counted as being a CaSL failure if:

    • It is cancelled at origin.
    • It is cancelled en route.
    • The originating station is changed.
    • It fails to make a scheduled stop at a station.
    • It is significantly late (ie it arrives at its terminating station 30 minutes or more late).

    CaSL is not a regulated measure for Scottish train operators.

    The moving annual average is calculated over 365 days to 31 March.

    Train Operating Company
    CaSL % period 13, 2014/15
    CaSL % period 13, 2015/16
    CaSL Moving annual average (MAA)
    Abellio Greater Anglia 2.7 2.9 2.8
    Arriva Trains Wales 1.8 2.5 2.7
    c2c Rail 0.7 3.3 1.3
    Chiltern 1.8 1.0 1.4
    Crosscountry 5.8 3.4 3.9
    East Midlands Trains 1.5 3.8 2.0
    First Hull Trains 7.4 4.9 5.7
    First Transpennine Express 2.8 5.7 5.8
    Govia Thameslink Railway 5.4 4.7 5.3
    Grand Central 2.2 5.8 4.5
    Great Western Railway 1.7 2.3 2.6
    Heathrow Express 0.7 0.7 1.9
    London Midland 3.1 2.9 2.9
    London Overground 2.1 2.0 2.2
    Merseyrail 1.5 1.3 1.9
    Northern Rail 1.2 1.7 1.7
    Southeastern 2.3 2.9 3.6
    Stagecoach South West Trains 1.9 2.8 2.8
    TfL Rail 1.5 2.7 2.6
    Virgin Trains East Coast 3.0 6.1 5.5
    Virgin Trains West Coast 4.5 7.7 4.7
           
    Total England & Wales Performance 2.7  3.0  3.1  

    Delay split by franchised operator
     

    Average lateness

    This measures the average lateness of a passenger as they alight from their train.

    For each train, this is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers expected to alight at main stations by the punctuality to the nearest minute at those stops.

    If the train is cancelled, we calculate it by multiplying the number of expected passengers by 1.5 times the service frequency on that route.

     
    Average lateness in minutes
    period 13, 2015/16
    Average lateness in minutes,
    moving annual average
    National 2.3 2.6
    Long Distance 4.4 4.6
    London & South East 2.2 2.4
    Regional 1.6 2.0
    Scotland 1.7 2.0
    England & Wales 2.4 2.6

    Right-time performance

    Right-time is an unreliable measure of performance and particularly does not represent the results and experience of passengers serviced by long-distance operators who enjoy some of the very best passenger satisfaction levels in the industry.

    Right-time performance measures the percentage of trains arriving at their terminating station early or within 59 seconds of schedule. The process for gathering data of this accuracy is currently not 100% reliable and the industry is working on improving the quality of this information to make right-time data more reliable.

    The moving annual average is calculated over 365 days to 31 March.

    Train Operating Company
    Right time %
    period 13, 2014/15
    Right time %
    period 13, 2015/16
    Right time moving annual
    average (MAA)
    Abellio Greater Anglia 72.8 69.3 65.9
    Arriva Trains Wales 86.9 79.9 81.5
    c2c Rail 88.2 75.5 80.4
    Caledonian Sleeper 80.2 83.1 73.8
    Chiltern 87.1 85.8 83.5
    Crosscountry 44.4 47.6 42.4
    East Midlands Trains 74.3 73.0 72.2
    First Hull Trains 52.4 45.5 46.1
    First Transpennine Express 58.5 55.3 51.5
    Govia Thameslink Railway 55.1 52.1 52.1
    Grand Central 53.2 37.7 45.1
    Great Western Railway 73.9 71.7 68.4
    Heathrow Express 72.1 69.6 68.6
    London Midland 65.4 69.2 64.7
    London Overground 74.5 79.5 76.7
    Merseyrail 75.9 76.1 68.5
    Northern Rail 76.4 75.2 70.4
    ScotRail 59.2 59.7 56.4
    Southeastern 71.4 60.8 58.6
    Stagecoach South West Trains 70.7 65.9 66.7
    TfL Rail 82.2 84.9 80.9
    Virgin Trains East Coast 63.8 57.5 55.9
    Virgin Trains West Coast 54.0 55.9 54.0
           
    Total National Performance 68.8 66.6 64.4

    Delay split by franchised operator
     

    Delay split

    The delay split shows who was responsible for passenger train delays of 3 minutes or more.

    • Network Rail caused delays: as well as infrastructure faults this figure includes external factors such as weather, trespass, vandalism, cable theft and fatalities which account for approximately one third of the delays attributed to us and 20% of all national delays.
    • Train operator caused to self: delays to a passenger train operating company's services that are caused by that company.
    • Caused by other train operators: delays to a passenger train operators services that are caused by another train company.

    The delay split was calculated over 365 days to 31 March.

    Network Rail Train operator caused to self Caused by other train operators
    60% 29% 11%

  • Delay Split by Operator: Period 13 (6 March to 31 March)

     

    Attributed to Network Rail

         
    Operator Infrastructure Operations & Other External (inc. weather, fatalities etc.) Total Train operator caused to self Caused by other passenger train operators Caused by freight train operators
    Abellio Greater Anglia 28% 11% 24% 63% 29% 3% 5%
    Arriva Trains Wales 23% 12% 14% 49% 43% 5% 3%
    c2c Rail 4% 15% 50% 68% 31% 0% 1%
    Chiltern 17% 20% 8% 44% 47% 5% 4%
    Crosscountry 34% 16% 18% 68% 9% 17% 6%
    East Midlands Trains 35% 11% 25% 71% 16% 9% 5%
    First Hull Trains 35% 16% 19% 71% 12% 16% 2%
    First Transpennine Express 28% 14% 14% 55% 21% 18% 5%
    Govia Thameslink Railway 16% 32% 13% 61% 36% 2% 1%
    Grand Central 27% 12% 28% 67% 11% 17% 4%
    Great Western Railway 24% 23% 15% 62% 28% 5% 5%
    Heathrow Express 11% 33% 14% 58% 22% 15% 5%
    London Midland 25% 13% 23% 61% 23% 11% 6%
    London Overground 17% 27% 16% 61% 15% 14% 9%
    Merseyrail 18% 37% 9% 64% 32% 4% 0%
    Northern Rail 27% 14% 12% 53% 34% 10% 3%
    ScotRail 28% 14% 11% 53% 40% 4% 3%
    Southeastern 18% 31% 17% 67% 30% 1% 2%
    Stagecoach South West Trains 26% 17% 29% 72% 24% 3% 1%
    TfL Rail 13% 16% 33% 63% 32% 4% 2%
    Virgin Trains East Coast 47% 9% 22% 79% 13% 6% 1%
    Virgin Trains West Coast 29% 9% 39% 77% 11% 5% 8%
     

    Delay Split by Operator: MAA (365 days to 31 March 2016)

     

    Attributed to Network Rail

         
    Operator Infrastructure Operations & Other External (inc. weather, fatalities etc.) NR Total Train operator caused to self Caused by other passenger train operators Caused by freight train operators
    Abellio Greater Anglia 30% 15% 15% 60% 29% 5% 7%
    Arriva Trains Wales 22% 15% 17% 53% 36% 7% 4%
    c2c Rail 16% 14% 24% 53% 43% 2% 2%
    Chiltern 17% 16% 11% 44% 44% 8% 4%
    Crosscountry 29% 16% 19% 63% 10% 20% 7%
    East Midlands Trains 27% 16% 18% 61% 20% 13% 7%
    First Hull Trains 32% 13% 23% 68% 12% 17% 3%
    First Transpennine Express 24% 15% 20% 60% 17% 20% 4%
    Govia Thameslink Railway 21% 26% 13% 60% 36% 3% 1%
    Grand Central 31% 14% 19% 64% 13% 20% 3%
    Great Western Railway 27% 20% 15% 62% 27% 5% 5%
    Heathrow Express 33% 22% 8% 63% 17% 16% 4%
    London Midland 26% 13% 16% 55% 28% 11% 5%
    London Overground 21% 21% 13% 55% 23% 17% 5%
    Merseyrail 17% 26% 16% 59% 37% 3% 0%
    Northern Rail 22% 14% 19% 54% 33% 9% 3%
    ScotRail 20% 17% 17% 54% 37% 6% 3%
    Southeastern 26% 20% 18% 64% 32% 2% 3%
    Stagecoach South West Trains 24% 22% 21% 68% 28% 3% 2%
    TfL Rail 23% 21% 11% 54% 29% 13% 3%
    Virgin Trains East Coast 32% 11% 25% 68% 19% 10% 3%
    Virgin Trains West Coast 31% 14% 25% 71% 14% 10% 6%

     


  • How punctuality is measured

    PPM measures the performance of individual trains advertised as passenger services against their planned timetable as agreed between the operator and Network Rail at 22:00 the night before. PPM is therefore the percentage of trains 'on time' compared to the total number of trains planned.

    A train is defined as on time if it arrives at the destination within five minutes (ie 4 minutes 59 seconds or less) of the planned arrival time for London and South East or regional services, or 10 minutes (ie 9 minutes 59 seconds or less) for long distance services.

    Where a train fails to run its entire planned route calling at all timetabled stations it will count as a PPM failure.

    Note: unless specified otherwise, all data on and linked from this page is for initial indications only and is subject to change in subsequent publications.

  • Train delays explained

    Delays explained 190x90 The common causes of delays - and what we're doing to reduce their frequency and impact.